Water Quality

Pure Water For Lab

The effects of water quality can often be overlooked, but as water is the most common solvent used in laboratories. Its quality is key to getting the expected and not ruined results. Similarly using poor water quality in a healthcare environment or in clinical diagnostrics can potentially be life threatening. Understanding the importance of water is critical.

Water Standards

In response to developments in scientific technique and technology and the increasing sensitivity of research, several professional organizations have established water quality standards. These groups include the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), and the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP). As an example, the NCCLS has specified three types of water — I, II, III — and Special Purpose, which are listed below with their intended uses

NCCLS Water Types And Applications

Different levels of quality are required for a vast range of applications, therefore different grades of water must be purified and utilized to match the required procedures or appliances. *only applicable to critical life science based applications
Grade of Water Resisitivity (M-cm) TOC (ppb) Bacteria (CFU/ml) *Endotoxin (EU/ml) Typical Applications 
Type 1+ 18.2 5 1 0.03 GF-AAS, ICP-MS, trace metal detection
Type 1 18 10 10 0.03 HPLC, GC, AAS, immunocytochemistry, mammalian cell culture, plant tissue culture
Type 2+ 10 50 10 NA General laboratory applications requiring higher inorganic purity
Type 2 1 50 100 NA Feed to ultra pure type 1 systems, feed to clinical analyzers, electrochemistry, sample dilution, media preparation, radioimmunoassay
Type 3 0.05 200 1000 NA Feed to ultra pure water type 1 systems, feed to washing machines, dishwashers, autoclaves